Friday, 11 May 2018

Cancer drug in the treatment of tuberculosis

The World Health Organization estimates that more than one-quarter of the world's population is currently infected with tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is world’s deadliest infectious diseases. There are various types of drugs are discovered to treat tuberculosis which is cause by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently researchers have discovered an FDA-approved drug that has been designed to treat cancer helps to fight against tuberculosis in mouse models. This drug is an MMP inhibitor that designed to increase the structural integrity of blood vessels in tumours so that other drugs can reach inside them. It performs the same function as in the granulomas associated with tuberculosis so that antibiotics can reach the bacteria sheltering within.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) are naturally produced by animals that break down connective tissue for a wide array of biological processes such as wound repair, growth and tissue development.  An increased in the production of MMPs has been strongly linked to the growth and metastasis of tumours. Many drugs have been created to inhibit MMP production, but have proven largely unsuccessful in the treatments to slow cancer progression in clinical trials.
In a new study, show that these drugs may be more useful in treating tuberculosis. These results show that several MMP inhibitors, including the FDA-approved drug Marimastat, increase the structural integrity of leaky blood vessels in tuberculosis granulomas, allowing antibiotics to penetrate them and attack the tuberculosis pathogens in mice more efficiently.
When M. tuberculosis enters the lungs, the immune system attempts to contain the bacterial colony by forming a cut around it which is called as granuloma. Tuberculosis is one of oldest pathogens. It has evolved a very clever strategy to survive. These granulomas are meant to destroy tuberculosis; the bacteria up regulates host MMPs to remodel the interior part of the granuloma, to gain protection from the immune system and antibiotics.
The M. tuberculosis remains as dormant within these granulomas for decades until something triggers them to become active. Once this get active, the disease becomes contagious again and kills roughly 15 percent of those who reach this stage.

Tuberculosis is extremely difficult to kill even in its active stage, requiring a six-to-nine month regimen of antibiotics. As many people are struggling to stick with treatment for that long time, especially after symptoms have subsided, strains resistant to multiple types of antibiotics are emerging. This is the most important reason to define the ways of curing the diseases.
A number of different types of small molecule MMP inhibitors increased the effectiveness of anti-tuberculosis drugs in killing the infectious disease in mouse models. Since tuberculosis is a most common infectious diseases in today world’s world so its treatment is necessary for the survival of people. Bacterial diseases 2018 help in this field to define a new path for treatment of this type of infections. 

Friday, 30 March 2018

Climate change promotes the spread of mosquito and tick-borne viruses

Now a day because of global warming climate is changing day by day and that leads to spreading of diseases bearing insects to ever-wider parts of the world. As a result of which humans are exposed to many deadliest viral infections such as Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Zika, West Nile fever, Yellow fever and Tick-borne encephalitis. For many of these diseases, there are as yet no specific antiviral agents or vaccines. Global warming has allowed mosquitoes, ticks and other disease-bearing insects to proliferate, adapt to changing environment, migrate and spread to new niche areas that have become warmer.
The growing spread of arboviruses
Aedes mosquitoes spread several dangerous arboviruses, including Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, West Nile and Yellow fever viruses. These mosquitoes grow in urban settings due to the lack of natural predators and the availability of food and habitats in which to procreate. They have recently become established in some European countries and the Americas, because of international travel and trade. Their spreading cause problem for public health. These viruses are difficult to eradicate as their larvae can survive in extreme condition for months, even in suboptimal humidity and temperature conditions.
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) has been found in several countries throughout the world. One of the most recently reported vectors for this virus is the Dermacentor reticulatus tick species which is spreading rapidly throughout Europe. It has a high reproduction rate, cold resistant and can live underwater for months. Humans can also be infected by tick bite by taking unpasteurised dairy products that have come from infected animals. Vaccine is available against TBEV.
Zika virus - a serious concern for Europe
Zika virus can cause neurological disorders such as Guillain-BarrĂ© Syndrome (GBS) and the development of microcephaly (abnormally small head) in foetuses. This type of syndromes is difficult to diagnose and there is no cure or vaccine. The spreading of this virus is a serious concern given the growing presence of its main vector that is the mosquito Aedes albopictus. More than 70 territories in world have confirmed autochthonous (indigenous) cases of ZIKV.
Mosquito control strategies
There are several techniques that have been used to control the breeding of mosquitoes by including insecticides, mosquito traps, genetic modification, land reclamation and habitat surveillance. Currently, the most safest, readily available and effective methods for controlling spreading of mosquitoes are mosquito traps (for relatively small areas) and nets, and the reduction of potential breeding sites (standing water).
The researchers found many advanced methods to control population of mosquito; they also warn that it would be unwise to remove mosquitoes completely from the ecosystem.

 Since the environmental condition is gradually getting disturbed day by day, the spreading of infections is also progressing. Bacterial Diseases 2018 is a medium for discussing on this latest topic on how to control the spreading of these infections by different agents. Researchers, Scientists can represent their thought, views on decreasing the spreading of these type of infectious diseases.  

Saturday, 24 March 2018

Newly designated human antibody prevents malaria in mice
Malaria, a mosquito spread disease cause by deadliest parasite, Plasmodium falciparum affect around 430000 deaths each year, primarily among young children in sub- Saharan Africa is a very dangerous and broad-spectrum infection worldwide. There is no such highly effective; long lasting vaccine had developed to cure malaria. Currently investigators team at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have isolated the antibody called CIS43, from the blood of a volunteer who had received an experimental vaccine made from weakened malaria parasites (PfSPZ Vaccine-Sanaria). In two different models of malaria infection in mice, it was found that the antibody CIS43 was highly effective at preventing malaria infection. CIS43 could be developed as a prophylactic measure that prevents infection for several months after administration. Such type of prophylactic antibody can be useful for tourists, health care workers, military personnel or others who travel to areas with high chances of malaria. If this antibody prevents malaria infection for up to six months, it might be combined with antimalarial drugs and be arranged as part of mass drug administration efforts that could eradicate the infection in malaria-endemic regions.
CIS43 the newly invented antibody revealed its workings by binding to a specific site called the epitope of a parasite surface protein. This epitope occurs only once along the length of the surface protein. In addition, this CIS43-binding epitope is remaining unspoiled across 99.8 percent of all known strains of P. falciparum, making it a striking target for next-generation experimental malaria vaccines designed to provoke production of this neutralizing antibody. Researchers are planning to access the safety and protective efficiency of the newly discovered CIS43 antibody this year in controlled of human malaria infection.
New Research provide the basic information regarding the future testing in human to determine whether this antibody CIS43 can provide protection against malaria and may help in vaccine design. Bacterial diseases 2018 is a medium for discussing among delegates, scientists, speakers, researchers worldwide on emerging areas like this antibody and how it can be useful for human to get cure from this deadliest parasite. Researchers can represent their views and their emerging research fronts in the Bacterial diseases 2018.

Friday, 16 March 2018

Antigen study supports, a novel method to vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes dangerous respiratory disease in Humans, but previous efforts to develop a vaccine have met with disappointment and frustration.
Medical investigators have been trying to develop a vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) for more than 51 years, without success. However, New findings point to a promising route for designing an operative vaccine. New findings by researchers at The University of California, Santa Cruz, however, point to a promising route for designing an effective vaccine.
Immune system antibodies can block the action of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and provide protection from RSV disease. A protective human antibody sticks to a folded part of the RSV G protein antigen. These new results provide a foundation for the development of a RSV vaccine.
For maximum people, RSV infection is just a bad cold, but in case of infants and older adults it can cause serious pneumonia or bronchial inflammation.
The latest research on this virus focused on the protein found on viral surface called as the RSV G glycoprotein. Scientists have isolated protective human antibodies that targeting the G glycoprotein and other collaborators at UCSC found, the atomic structure of RSV G and identified two sites of it are targeted by protective antibodies effective against a broad range of RSV strains.
The G glycoprotein is very important. It is the attachment protein that allows the virus to stick to lung cells. This virus produces a secreted form of G glycoprotein that goes out and starts flipping and distorting immune responses of an individual.
Latest invention in this field proved that these protective antibodies target to a section of the protein called as the central conserved domain that remains same for all strains of virus. The scientists determined the three-dimensional atomic structures of the binding sites of two antibodies to design a vaccine that can induce the immune system to synthesize such protective antibodies. The vaccine that is based on RSV G would have ensured that the vaccine lacks the viral protein's ability to disrupt the immune system.
Bacterial Diseases 2018 helps the researchers to discuss and learn The Hot Research Fronts and Emerging Research Fronts like this. It gives some ideas to Post-doctoral fellows to do researches in this field.

Friday, 9 March 2018

Broad spectrum antiviral drug inhibits coronaviruses infection

Researchers have found that corona viruses, an RNA virus cause common cold and pneumonia. These viruses can jump between animal and human hosts. In recent years, coronaviruses have caused lethal outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in many continents. There is no retroviral drug has been approved to treat these infections.
Previous studies showed that the drug inhibits strains of SARS and MERS coronaviruses that infect human airways and the lower respiratory tract, as well as infection by the Ebola virus. The latest innovations revealed that the drug can also inhibit murine hepatitis virus, which is related to several human coronaviruses that cause respiratory tract infections sometimes severe acute respiratory syndrome. 
GS-5734 drug is used in the treatment of infections caused by coronaviruses, including epidemic strains, as well as those that are jump from an animal host to a human in the future. Because of its multiple activities this drug is referred as broad spectrum antiviral drug.  GS-5734 is a nucleoside analog, a class of drugs that inhibit the replication of the virus. The scientists tested the drug on mini models of human lungs consisting of epithelial cells, collected from lung transplants.
Bacteriology 2018 is a medium to discuss about these infectious diseases and about that broad spectrum drugs. It also provides an open field to represent the views of delegates, researchers in the production of vaccine to cure this infection in future.

Friday, 2 March 2018

Scientists gain new insight on how antibodies interact with widespread respiratory virus

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infects most children worldwide by the age of 2. It usually causes mild cold like symptoms but can lead to severe conditions like pneumonia. Since this RSV cause widespread viral infection and it is closely related to human metapneumoniavirus (hMPV), there is no specific vaccines have been developed to fight against these viruses.
To overcome from these viruses scientists have investigated that some human antibodies that are produced by the human immune system is response to RSV infection. Vaccines generally work by priming the body to unleash a strong antibody response against invading pathogens, so anti-RSV antibodies could be invaluable.
From previous research it was found that human antibodies that bind to certain sites on the RSV F protein, inhibiting the virus's ability to fuse to a human cell. By transfusing blood from donors, and colleagues, four new antibodies are discovered that bind to a specific site of RSV F protein known as site IV. One of the antibodies, called 3M3, showed particular strength in disabling RSV, suggesting it might be useful in treatment or prevention. Another antibody, 17E10, can attack and neutralize both RSV and hMPV, which has a very similar F protein. This is a great achievement in medical field.
The researchers used electron microscopy to visualize antibody-virus interactions. This work open that 17E10 binds F protein more efficiently than do the other three antibodies. This directly related to 17E10's ability to neutralize both RSV and hMPV.
Annual Conference on Bacterial, Viral and Infectious Diseases provide opportunities to the young researchers to represent their ideas and to design better next generation vaccine antigens for these common viral pathogens.

Friday, 23 February 2018

'Virus-cracking' molecules advance fight against hepatitis B

It is estimated that about 2 billion people in worldwide are affected with hepatitis B virus infection in their lifetime and it is the most trending infection in world wide. Although there is a vaccine for this infection but there is no cure. A new drug has developed that depends on how the morphology of the hepatitis B virus changes when bound to an experimental drug.
The discovery suggests that these drugs could attack hepatitis B virus on multiple fronts that is both preventing replication and killing new copies of the virus. This drug can be use in multiple ways that can work at the same time. Generally, a virus reproduces by takeover a host’s cellular machinery and produces more of the virus. Most viruses protect their genetic material - DNA or RNA inside a protein shell called as "capsid." But recently a class of molecules called core protein allosteric modulators or CpAMs has discovered that disturb capsid protein assembly.
CpAM molecules attack viruses by causing their shells to assemble incorrectly, interrupting the life cycle of the virus. Previously, CpAMs were only able to disrupt a virus during formation of the capsid; as a result its DNA was protected inside a hard casing. But this study finds that the molecules can break this capsid because of which the further replication of the virus is not possible.
For this discovery, scientists bound the CpAM to a chemical called TAMRA, a crimson coloured dye used in some red lipstick to make it fluorescent and easier to detect in experiments. Using cryo-electron microscopy, they found that a small CpAM molecule could make the large, soccer ball-shaped virus capsid bend and distort. This is a most effective research to fight against hepatitis B infection that is helpful for the society.
Annual Conference on Bacterial, Viral and Infectious Diseases scheduled during August 06-08, 2018 in Abu Dhabi, UAE will provide an open field of discussion on Hepatitis B virus by distinguished scientists and how to diminish the infection rate. It also provides opportunities to the young researchers to network with eminent researchers in the field improving career opportunities.